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January 21 2016


Why did the Thebans defeat the normally militarily superior Spartans at the battle of Leuctra (371 BC)?


The battle of Leuctra ended up being fought within 371 BC and represents a turning point within Greek history. (1) Regarding a lengthy time the Spartans had held military dominance about just about any battlefield these people entered, however this battle put an end to that particular dominance. It has been declared the Theban general, Epaminondas, applied revolutionary tactics in order to defeat the actual Spartans (Cawkwell 1972), yet Hanson (1988) disputes this declare and also gives different causes as to why the Spartans lost. I think not really enough thought continues in order to be offered as for the Spartan loss with Leuctra. Perhaps if Hanson (1988), Cawkwell (1972) and Krentz (1985) (2) give a variety of suggestions for Sparta's loss at Leuctra, there are nonetheless numerous other factors influencing any battle who have not necessarily been considered inside enough detail by simply them. I will possibly be analyzing the translated texts associated with Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 6.3-15), Pausanias (Paus. 9.13.2-12) as well as Plutarch (Pel. 20-23). Although analyzing these texts I shall keep in mind that will Pausanias and Plutarch are not alive in the time of the actual battle and when they wrote, these folks were getting influenced by the 'Epaminondas tradition' (3) and never the particular culture at the duration of the particular battle. Xenophon may have been alive in the period of the particular battle however he has been a Spartan and definitely saw the particular battle from the Spartan perspective. I will focus around the subsequent aspects influencing your battle from Leuctra (371 BC): (1) the point or even the motivation involving either side engaging within this battle. (2) the particular morale with the troops before engaging in the battle. (3) the quality as well as amount in the troops fighting against each and every other. (4) the formations as well as the techniques that the generals applied at the battle. By looking at each one involving these separate factors, I think I is likely to be able to produce the significantly clearer explanation with the Spartan loss and the unexpected Theban victory. I may also look at your 'revolutionary tactics' employed through Epaminondas and discuss these inside respect to the aforementioned factors.


At Leuctra both sides were determined in several methods to face each other about the battlefield, in which in turn the outcome had been uncertain. yet both sides decided to fight along with risk everything that they stood for.

For quite the long time Sparta had dominated your Peloponnesian world. They had military dominance along with oppressed a amount associated with other cities have been too scared to rebel against all of them because associated with their brutal along with unforgiving reputation. in 379 BC a group of Theban democrats overthrew their own ruling oligarchs, whom exactly where puppets to Spartan overseers, along with instituted the Boeotian confederate democracy that had been free involving charge from your outside influence of various other cities. This particular revolutionary concept threatened the dominance involving the Spartans and whether it spread, many other smaller cities may combine and become democratic confederations which will be harder in order to manipulate (Hanson 2010:95-96). Your Spartans also noticed the expulsion with the Spartan overseers from Thebes as a grave insult and also these were established to reestablish the particular influence which they'd throughout Boeotia (Hanson 2010:95). This drove your Spartans to end up being able to invade Boeotia to be able to put a conclusion in order to this revolution and to reassert his or her authority. every Spartan was motivated by this while they all prided by themselves in becoming section of the strongest military energy within Greece. However, when the particular Thebans had reclaimed their independence, they were decided to maintain it as well as despite the real fact that the Spartans attempted to invade no less than four times, each one of these attempts were thwarted. (4) These kind of failures began to break along the excellent reputation that the Spartans had, up to then, enjoyed. This began to influence the particular dominating souped up that your Spartans had more than their particular allies and other minor cities. This particular angered the Spartans further generating them more desperate to have rid with the threat represented through the Boeotian confederate democracy. Thus when Cleombrotus, the particular Spartan king leading the invading force inside 371 BC, finally broke by means of the Boeotian defences and arrived at the plain with Leuctra, he and the Spartan army were determined to make any fight and also reclaim his or her reputation (Paus. 9.13.9).

The Thebans were fed up with getting dominated by Sparta. These People were motivated for you to eliminate the dominance that will Sparta enjoyed over the Peloponnesian world so as to keep their particular independence (Hanson 2010:95). Perhaps although these folks were able to repulse the first invasions of Sparta, simply by either active or even passive means, the constant conflict often brought famine for you to Thebes. after realizing the Spartans would not give up until they'd won, the Thebans made your decision in which it had not been enough to simply repulse the different invasions, nevertheless in order to crush the particular Spartans in battle thus as to discourage these people via ever invading once again (Hanson 2010:96). This particular was obviously a fantastic motivating factor for that Thebans when preparing for the unavoidable conflict that provides been destined in order to come. When the Spartans finally broke by means of the particular defenses, which throughout fact had been established about the Boeotian borders, and arrived at the plain at Leuctra, this famous battle began. Your Thebans had to fight as well as most that they had labored regarding in the final decade would are already for nothing. If they lost this battle as well as avoided it they would lose your trust involving the other cities which throughout fact had joined their own alliance, along with those would then most likely rebel against all of them (Xen. Hell. 6.4.6). The Actual fate involving their particular city was also at risk (Xen. Hell. 6.4.6). so your Thebans' motivation to engage on this battle is clear: their particular independence, their particular recently established reputation, and also most of all, the lives involving their own loved ones were all in danger whenever they lost or even didn't fight on this battle.

Morale before the commencement with the battle

At Leuctra there were various factors that will influenced the actual morale of the soldiers. Several of these influenced the Spartans inside this kind of negative way that they stopped fighting with all the motivation that they usually showed throughout a battle, along with forced them to ultimately retreat.

The Spartans had attemptedto invade Thebes numerous times currently and had failed. Finally, by means of trickery, these people were in a new position to break by means of the defenses for the plain with Leuctra and threaten your army of Thebes and also her allies (Paus. 9.13.3). However, even when these were productive at breaking through the defenses in this occasion, these people still could possess began to doubt themselves, due in order to their prior failures. another problem was their meticulous focus on religion. the Greeks were a very religious people whom supported oracles. at Leuctra there is a monument dedicated in order to a pair of virgins who ended up raped simply by Spartans. These types of virgins had killed themselves. His Or Her father cursed the particular location where that they died. It was said that in this cursed plain the actual Spartans would finally be defeated (Xen. Hell. 6.4.7). This specific frightened the particular Spartan soldiers along with they feared the oracle could be true. Therefore even though these folks were inspired to go straight into this war, doubt concerning regardless involving whether they can acquire had been probably already creeping in.

The Thebans had been doubtless in addition scared. they were going to fight against an enemy which in fact had held military dominance more than the actual whole Peloponnesian region to find a long time. they had ready pertaining to this battle for a extended time as well as their generals utilized the particular oracle associated with both slain virgins to their advantage, encouraging their troops through telling these that they Battle Camp Hack would win. another rumour was that the armour involving Heracles that has been stored in one of their own temples had disappeared. The Particular interpretation ended up being that Heracles had taken his armour to address against the Spartans (Xen. Hell. 6.4.7). Thus the particular Theban soldiers had been encouraged through the actual assumed support regarding their particular gods. Because previously mentioned, their motivation was also very great. They Will had been going to fight to be able to protect his or her homeland and their loved ones. the morale of the soldier that protects his homeland will be greater and he will fight much harder when compared to a soldier who is invading the territory regarding another.

Quality and quantity of the troops

At your battle involving Leuctra King Cleombrotus, with an army of approximately ten 000 soldiers, fought against the Theban force involving 7500. (5) Seeking in the troop quantities upon both sides in this approach makes it seem like the Thebans achieved any tremendous victory. Which is the reason it is important to look at the figures a lot more carefully by adding the quality with the separate troops in order to this equation one will discover that in actual fact it was Thebes that will held the actual advantage.

Spartans had been extremely specific as well as classic regarding who had been allowed to become a Spartiate, the planet renowned Spartan soldier. An Individual were needed to be a Spartan citizen along with result from any military family. you had to be able to pay for your day-to-day messes that anyone simply had to attend every night and when you were not really in any position to accomplish this a person were expelled from getting any Spartiate and were labeled 'inferior'. Inferiors were still permitted to fight for Sparta but simply as part of the actual morai, this being the second component of the Spartan army that had been introduced after the decline in quantities of the Spartiates. (6) Thanks to those causes as well as the constant conflict being fought at this period the actual number of Spartiates began to diminish therefore that when it came towards the battle regarding Leuctra there was only 700 Spartiates left (Xen. Hell. 6.4.15). due towards the insufficient Spartiates the Spartans also forced helots, soldiers from your cities which they had oppressed, to become hoplites and also fight regarding them.

The Spartan army invading Boeotia consisted regarding 9300 hoplites, 600 horsemen plus a couple of hundred light armoured spearmen (Delbruck 1975:169). During the actual Peloponnesian war many armies began to employ mercenary soldiers to battle for them, as it wasn't profitable for the citizen levy to be able to remain far from residence for too long by leaving their own work unattended. This has been the commencement regarding skilled soldiers within Greece. This particular furthermore allowed the soldiers associated with the other cities for you to adopt the particular drill discipline coming from the Spartans (Delbruck 1975:149). Consequently there was many other soldiers that might not possess access to had the particular extensive military coaching which the Spartans had, but remained as excellent soldiers and also in any situation to complete difficult maneuvers. so your 9300 hoplites that will Cleombrotus had beneath his command included Spartiates, morai, helots however predominantly allied hoplites who were furthermore trained to some degree inside the art associated with war. A problem with almost all the Spartan force has been its severe insufficient adequate cavalry. They had been not able to start to see the benefits that the cavalry force, which was well trained along with integrated to the battle plans, could give them (Christensen 2006:57) and also even though these people had a cavalry force involving 600 horsemen; these folks were badly trained, without encounter and only the weakest in the Spartans were assigned to fight on horseback (Xen. Hell. 6.4.11).

After the actual abolition involving oligarchy and additionally the begin with the Boeotian confederate democracy it absolutely was clear which Sparta would soon invade in order to put a stop in order to this revolution (Hanson 2010:95). Consequently previously long before the battle regarding Leuctra Epaminondas started to prepare your Theban soldiers to fight against Sparta (Cawkwell 1972:260-262). An Additional special addition was your Sacred Band that will consisted of your Brotherhood of 300 elite soldiers. Generally there were an additional 2100 Thebans (7). Thus your Theban hoplite force consisted associated with at least 300 elite soldiers, with regards to 2100 well-trained and experienced Theban soldiers and additionally the rest must are already adequately trained hoplites from your allies of Thebes. The Actual gift that will the Thebans had has been their 600-800 horsemen. It had been probably the very best trained cavalry at this time in Greece (Christensen 2006:57). They also had the necessary combat expertise because of their current battle against the Orchomenians and also Thespians. The Actual Theban general ended up being additionally in the position to integrate them correctly into the army plus his tactics so that they were in a situation to assist the hoplites as well as affect your outcome of the battle.

The allies in both sides within the conflict were extremely unreliable. So the primary part of your conflict fell to the Spartans as well as the Thebans (Delbruck 1975:169). This particular shows that the Spartans, getting simply 700 Spartiates upon whom they might genuinely depend, were inside actual fact from a disadvantage because the Thebans facing these had a minimum of 2400 experienced and inspired Thebans along with 600-800 veteran horsemen they might trust.

Formations & tactics used within the battle

The battle of Leuctra (371 BC)

Looking in the starting formations of every as well as every side, one will discover that King Cleombrotus set up his soldiers within the typical and also traditional square formation. The Particular Spartans had been positioned about the correct wing as well as the allies took proper treatment of the centre and the left wing with the collection (Bourelet 1966:78). The Actual simply innovation throughout his formations ended up being that will his files were 12 men deep as in opposition to the typical 8 (Cawkwell 1983:399).

The Theban proper wing and centre had been held by his or her allies as well as set up within the standard and proportional style, just such as the Spartans facing them. The Actual left wing, which in turn was held from the Thebans themselves, was setup in a column. The idea was just 48 files wide nevertheless 50 men deep (Cawkwell 1983:399). The Particular position with the separate formations will be also interesting. Exactly Where your Spartans positioned their particular three separate formations in a new straight line, the particular Thebans placed his or her left wing before the centre yet towards the left as well as the right wing behind your centre yet in order to the right in order that his or her combined formation created one oblique range facing the enemy, hence the particular name; the particular 'oblique formation' (8) (Bourelet 1966:78).

It seems that will on the left in the Theban series the terrain was impassable since if the Spartans advanced, his or her cavalry had been drawn in front of their own Hoplites forcing these to stop (Delbruck 1975:168). The Theban general seems to have seen an chance and charged with his personal horsemen, who were far more skillful and also better trained and routed the particular enemy which turned along with fled straight into their really own infantry lines (Xen. Hell. 6.4.13). From exactly the particular same occasion as the cavalry battle, in between the lines, your left wing with the Thebans began in order to advance. As soon as their cavalry had defeated the actual opposing cavalry along with forced them in to the hoplite lines, the actual column had been in a situation to charge into the disrupted right wing of the enemy (Xen. Hell. 6.4.13). Your Spartans were unable to outflank the column so as to simultaneously attack them through the side, as the victorious Boeotian cavalry has been there to hinder this tactic (Bourelet 1966:78). but even though they were demoralized by the loss of their cavalry as well as the disruption associated with their particular formations these people managed to stay with each and every other and fight and not scatter along with flee inside the encounter of such a huge column. Merely when their own king Cleombrotus fell (Hanson 1988:200), along along with his bodyguard, does the particular Spartans learn to give ground. They were certainly not routed but in complete order, whilst nevertheless facing the actual huge column, they will slowly retreated back again with their camp and its defenses (Xen. Hell. 6.4.14). Whilst this battle with all the column went about the allies of Sparta attempted to become able to charge the proper flank as well as middle in the Thebans, but whenever they will came shut the particular Thebans allies withdrew even more, denying your Spartan allies a new fight. When the Spartans then began to retreat, your allies lost coronary heart as well as broke off their particular pursuit and also fled to camp, scared of becoming surrounded from the flank (Cawkwell 1983:397). This brought with it the end with the battle and the invasion associated with Boeotia. The Spartans went residence having lost no much less than 400 associated with their particular elite and many others whereas the actual Thebans merely had minor casualties (Xen. Hell. 6.4.15).

The revolutionary techniques of Epaminondas

It provides usually been said that this battle was obviously a revolutionary battle and in which Epaminondas brought in many innovative suggestions that changed the face regarding Greek military tactics after this. I will take a peek at a number of of these 'revolutionary' tips and talk about if these folks were revolutionary at all.

Traditionally the actual strongest units of an army exactly where stationed about the right hand facet with the line. However, in the battle involving Leuctra the Thebans positioned their strongest troops around the left in order to encounter the strongest soldiers of his or her enemy (Cawkwell 1972:259). This becomes obvious which the Thebans failed to trust their allies to battle and knew which whenever they would be employed from the Spartans these people would clearly lose. Certainly Not seeking to risk this, the actual Thebans concentrated a big amount regarding their force in the wing facing your Spartans hoping to smash and destroy the particular Spartans by clear numerical advantage. The Particular centre and also left wing, held simply by their allies, had been ordered for you to withdraw and never confront those who opposed them until the Spartans had been defeated (Hanson 1988:1998). The Actual range ended up being also set up inside the oblique formation. Cawkwell sees three revolutionary innovations within this set up. Firstly, the actual concentration of forces was on the left as opposed to the proper (Cawkwell 1972:259). Secondly, ordering troops to not fight however gradually withdraw. last may be the oblique formation.

Hanson disputes Cawkwell's arguments as well as states that these cannot potentially always be revolutionary innovations for the artwork associated with warfare, as all these techniques or formations had been utilized in battles before (Hanson 1988:192). Though these techniques had been utilized before, (9) your great feat that the Thebans achieved at this battle was to implement certain tactics and also formations through background and make them function inside their favour. The Thebans had untrustworthy allies nevertheless they necessary his or her assist to destroy your Spartans. Simply By applying these formations as well as tactics, the Thebans were able to keep their own allies safe, below careful watch as well as at the identical moment avoid the Spartan allies coming from interfering whilst they were dealing with the Spartans. The Actual large column in which they had setup on the proper may well not really are already such a good concept and the Spartans might have well repulsed its attack if luck we had not been around the Theban side. The false maneuverability in the cavalry as well as the death involving Cleombrotus were both unforeseen events which turned the particular battle throughout favour involving the Thebans.

Cawkwell sees the actual role the cavalry played in the battle as another revolutionary innovation (1972:261). As Quickly As once more Hanson disputes this, as cavalry had previously played a role within battles since the Peloponnesian War (1988:195). However, the particular Thebans' use associated with cavalry and their ability to integrate them to their army as well as tactics was inspired. where the particular Spartan cavalry seemed to battle independently and through this impeded the hoplite attack and disrupted them, the Boeotian cavalry has been capable of work together using the hoplites in order to reach a combined victory.

Thus you could find actually zero revolutionary innovations on this battle. However one can't say that the Theban generals are not great military tacticians, as these folks were able to take formations along with techniques from history and implement these to their really own situation. they were in addition veterans at adapting their particular plans along with changing his or her techniques in order for you to seek out a higher benefit regarding themselves.


From the above discussion, it can easily be seen that many factors contributed for the victory with the Thebans. The Actual Theban army, even if outnumbered, had the actual advantage of having more loyal and experienced troops, especially when it came towards the cavalry. The Particular Spartans could only really rely around the 700 Spartiates. Utilizing their extremely own trustworthy and motivated troops, as well as applying old tactics and formations inside new ways, and by incorporating luck, your Thebans had been in a new situation to defeat your Spartans who were, at that time, even now reputed being the actual best army in Greece. But motivation and the morale of the troops also influenced the outcome of the battle. First, it had been via his or her religion as well as their belief that they were doomed for you to lose, they begun to doubt their very own skills and shed morale. Second, when the Spartans had much more compelling purpose to fight, they may possess continued the battle, as these were educated to do, and emerged victorious. Right now there had been simply no revolutionary innovations, there was merely a mixture of good preparation as well as motivation having a bit of luck added which gave your Thebans this momentous victory.

Appendix A



Bourelet, J 1966. The Particular ancient artwork associated with warfare. Italy: ILTE.

Brownson, C L (trans.) 1918. Xenophon inside seven volumes. Medford, Tufts College [Online]. Available: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0206%3Abook%3D6%3Achapter%3D4%3Asection%3D3> [Accessed: 16 September 2011].

Cartledge, P 1977. Hoplites as well as heroes: Sparta's contribution to the strategy involving ancient warfare. JHS97.1:11-27.

Cawkwell, G L 1972. Epaminondas along with Thebes. CQ 22.2:254-278.

Cawkwell, G L 1983. The Actual decline of Sparta.CQ 33.2:385-400.

Christesen, P 2006. Xenophon's 'Cyropaedia' and military reforms inside Sparta. JHS 126.1:47-65.

Delbruck, H 1975. Your good popularity for the capacity of war. London: Greenwood Press.

Hanson, V D 1988. Epaminondas, the particular battle associated with Leuctra (371 BC), and the 'revolution' within Greek battle tactics. ClAnt 7.2:190-207.

Hanson, V D 2010. Makers of ancient strategy, from the Persian Wars to Rome. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Or College Press.

Jones, W H S (trans.) 1918. Pausanias: Description involving Greece. Medford, Tufts College [Online]. Available: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160%3Abook%3D9%3Achapter%3D13%3Asection%3D1> [Accessed:16 September 2011].

Krentz, P 1985. The Actual naturel regarding hoplite battle. ClAnt 4.1:50-61.

Perrin, B (trans.) 1917. Plutarch: Pelopidas. Medford, Tufts University [Online]. Available: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2008.01.0054%3Achapter%3D20%3Asection%3D1> [Accessed: 16 September 2011].

(1) I would truly like by way of thanking my supervisor Dr. Susan Haskins pertaining to all the support that they gave me with this paper and additionally the CASA judges for the feedback that will I have got received coming from them.

(2) Hanson 1988 at first aims to dispute the revolutionary tactics of Epaminondas, he then moves to give his own reasons, just similar to the death of the Spartan King, your lack of morale in the Spartans, not really defending their very own but attacking someone's homeland. Cawkwell 1972 focuses on your genius with the Theban general Epaminondas as well as says the main factor influencing this Theban victory are the revolutionary tactics applied by simply him. Krentz 1985 states that will the primary factor, that brought forth your Spartan loss, was the particular numerical superiority in the Thebans, especially upon his or her left wing.

(3) The Particular 'Epaminondas tradition' provides every one of the honour of the victory from Leuctra for you to Epaminondas and his revolutionary tactics without contemplating another generals and furthermore the numerous elements that influenced the actual battle. Discover Hanson 1988:204.

(4) for more information about the failed invasions of Sparta, see Hanson 2010:96.

(5) for the actual extent of this paper I will most likely be utilizing the particular troop estimations coming from Busolt (Delbruck, 1975:169).

(6) Cawkwell argues the 'inferiors' were just as well trained because the Spartiates and should be considered to become equals to the Spartiates on the battlefield. He also states that will for this reason we shouldn't assume that the Spartan army had turn out for you to be weaker just because there were less Spartiates, as the 'inferiors' were there and these folks were growing in number. I disagree with this as the 'inferiors' would not fight as zealously for that country, that had insulted these people and also degraded them, because the Spartiates would. The idea is also important to remember that only the 'inferiors', that had been Spartiates before, had the same military training as the Spartiates. Their offspring nonetheless may even now fight as an 'inferior' but not with most the same Spartan training which their fathers enjoyed (1983:388).

(7) I suggest this quantity since Epaminondas put every one associated with the Thebans into his left wing along with left the centre as well as the right wing to the allies. The left wing ended up being 48 files wide and 50 ranks deep as well as therefore 2400 soldiers. When you subtract the Sacred Band from this number an individual arrive to 2100 other Theban soldiers (Bourelet 1966:76).

(8) With Regard To my illustration associated with this arrangement refer to Appendix A.

(9) Pertaining To further info around the battles where some of these tactics are already utilized before, refer to Hanson 1988.

Christian Straeuli, Ancient Culture Studies III (University of Pretoria)

January 18 2016


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January 12 2016


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